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Unnamed Road, Pirates Well Settlement, The Bahamas
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Welcome to the Authentic Pirate Living History Group, a small corner of Facebook for those who would like to "get it right" to hide from Hollywood and pop-culture "sexy" pirate girls. This is a place for discussion of the history and material culture of real, historical, pirates of the "Golden Age" (however you choose to define it, but for now let's say European/American pirates, 1690-1725 ish) and their portrayal at living history and educational events. Feel free to invite other like minded friends.

Anyone posting pictures of themselves in Jack Sparrow outfits or typing in "pyratese" will be mercilessly mocked and jeered. Please leave your bucket boots at the door.

If you have a specific question, it may already have been asked, and it's recommended that you have a quick browse through this document to see links to previous discussions. There is no harm, however in asking a question again, even if it's been answered before, because research here is ever ongoing, and it's likely that something new could be added.

https://www.facebook.com/notes/authentic-pirate-living-history/informative-discussions-of-aplh/567098313387200

Friday February 16th, 2018 - 9:58 pm

Has anyone have anymore info. I have done a lot of research, now as far as John Calico Jack Rackham I have been searching for the names of his ships. I do know he started out on the "Ranger" then he took the "Kingston". Some sites I have read have suggested he also had a ship name "Vanity". I do not think that is true. I found some stories that say the name "Vanity" was a small sloop or even a dingy joke name when Charles Vain and Calico Jack split ways from the ship "Ranger". Calico Jack received pardon for taking the "Kingston" while in Port Royal.Then he stop pirating for awhile and he met Ann Bonny. They had some fun. They took a ship and Calico was back to pirating with Ann. I have read they had named that ship "Revenge" I really am not so sure about that ship name. I do know "Revenge" was the name of Stede Bonnet and his ship. Well, that it, all I can seem to find as true on Calico Jack and his ship names is "The Ranger" and "The Kingston". Do not know what Calico Jack, Ann B and Mary Read called their ship. ... See MoreSee Less

 

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I don't know the answer but I have noticed that the Revenge is an incredibly common pirate ship name. The first I know of was Drakes HMS Revenge, I think Blackbeard had a sloop named revenge, Bonnet had a sloop named Revenge, and of coarse the Queen Anne's Revenge. There's a lot of others. Was Revenge a well liked name of the time or did the name get mixed up in the telling and retelling of history?

Wasn't his final ship named William, according to Woodes Rogers' proclamation? See Cordingly's "Black Flag", page 58-59.

Yes I do or have seen that as I have researched.

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Friday February 16th, 2018 - 7:29 pm

A few of the us in the Crew of the Scavenger are getting together tomorrow morning, for the day, in Saint Petersburg, Florida for food and drinks. We will be hanging out in early 18th century garb, cooking some food, having some drinks, talking history, maybe getting some cool photos on the beach and in the woods.

If you have sailor garb for the golden age of piracy, and you'd like to join us, send me a message!
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A few of the us in the Crew of the Scavenger are getting together tomorrow morning, for the day, in Saint Petersburg, Florida for food and drinks. We will be hanging out in early 18th century garb, cooking some food, having some drinks, talking history, maybe getting some cool photos on the beach and in the woods.

If you have sailor garb for the golden age of piracy, and youd like to join us, send me a message!

 

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Day-um! We're a couple of real-life sailors and tall ship crew; liveaboards in personal life. You're about 100 years to late for us, but honoured to know you.

I follow your page and will look forward to the photos, should you choose to post 'em! 😀

Couples photos of sea-wives incoming?

When, where?

A bit far for me to travel - shame it sounds like a good day. Love the photo's, great looking kit 🙂

Since I saw this post, I've been musing over something. And that is that the 'pirate' community, esp. those in the WWPC group try to make their garb look badass or cool. They typically go for sashes, leather tricornes adorned with feathers and broches and belts with rivets and bolts on them (I could go on, but I don't want to waste everybody's time!). I think this stuff just looks so much cooler! You can never beat the history side of piracy. Hence why I joined this group (I was one of those people, i.e. who thought leather tricornes were a thing, but that's another story for another time! 😉 )

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Friday February 16th, 2018 - 7:08 pm

I picked up a repro lantern the other day and was wondering if I should replace the plate glass panels with something else or just leave them ... See MoreSee Less

 

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I tried putting horn in a lantern once it was a nightmare to try and keep them straight !!!

Talc,maybe.It was used by the Spaniards at the time,or so I saw when checking up on it online.I was thinking of something similar but using the panels from a stove,unfortunately I could not buy it as anything other than pre-cut pieces which would make it one very expensive lantern.

I bought thin sheets of mica for one of my lanterns. Much easier to work than horn, plus provides decent light. Can't vouch for the historical accuracy, however.

Wednesday February 14th, 2018 - 5:03 pm

Here are some pictures of a cherry wood pipe case I finished last night. It is based off of the one found on the 1704 Dauphine shipwreck, except that I lengthened it to fit a pipe I had (the pipe is 8.5"). The first two pictures have a side-by-side of the original. There are definitely some things I can improve on next time, but for my first real woodworking project I am very happy with it! ... See MoreSee Less

Here are some pictures of a cherry wood pipe case I finished last night. It is based off of the one found on the 1704 Dauphine shipwreck, except that I lengthened it to fit a pipe I had (the pipe is 8.5). The first two pictures have a side-by-side of the original. There are definitely some things I can improve on next time, but for my first real woodworking project I am very happy with it!

 

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Too cool 🙂

That dear sir, is awesome. If you ever decide to make those commercially (for sale), I would be honored if you would consider me for being the first customer for one of those.

That is an awesome recreation. Love the little details.

Since a couple people have asked now, I might as well mention that I am definitely willing to make more of these. This took me around 20 hours to make, and I will probably ask $200 for another one. This wouldn't include the pipe, but it will fit any of those generic clay pipes that we see in our era.

Alas, beat me to it. Have one in the process of being carved. You did a great job!

This is so cool!

Wow, just beautiful sir

Very cool. I have wanted one of those for years.

Great work! Better yet, I've never seen a documented wooden pipe case from the period, and now you've provided proof they existed

nice job.

Hey Joshua any information on the original species of wood cherry like yours or something else?

Excellent

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Tuesday February 13th, 2018 - 5:45 pm

Part of "Short Heads of Mr. [Richard] Lasinby's Narrative," ff. 173b-174 (from British Library's East India Collections) which gives more detail to his discussion with pirate Edward Congdon of Dragon while on the island of Bourbon (today La Reunion). The info also confirms some parts of the story from Le Mercure, May 1722:

Capt. Conden [Edward Congden] who Commanded a pyrate And was come her & about 40 of his people in upon ye french Kings act of Grace whereof Remains att present not above 18 on ye I[s]land some of y:m [them] Marry'd. Ye Capt. also Rem:s there - Came home Passengers in ye French Ship - about the rest being Dead, I enquired of y:m [him] whether had any news of more pyrates who told me that when they came from Madegascar knew of no more y:n [than] themselves, they burnt their privateer [ship, Dragon] & Sunk ye Moors prize they had taken in ye Port of St. Mary's & left most of the people that Stay'd behind there Sick.

From the book - "Sailing East: West-Indian Pirates in Madagascar," coming soon!
www.facebook.com/sailingeast/
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Part of Short Heads of Mr. [Richard] Lasinbys Narrative, ff. 173b-174 (from British Librarys East India Collections) which gives more detail to his discussion with pirate Edward Congdon of Dragon while on the island of Bourbon (today La Reunion). The info also confirms some parts of the story from Le Mercure, May 1722:

Capt. Conden [Edward Congden] who Commanded a pyrate And was come her & about 40 of his people in upon ye french Kings act of Grace whereof Remains att present not above 18 on ye I[s]land some of y:m [them] Marryd. Ye Capt. also Rem:s there - Came home Passengers in ye French Ship - about the rest being Dead, I enquired of y:m [him] whether had any news of more pyrates who told me that when they came from Madegascar knew of no more y:n [than] themselves, they burnt their privateer [ship, Dragon] & Sunk ye Moors prize they had taken in ye Port of St. Marys & left most of the people that Stayd behind there Sick.

From the book - Sailing East: West-Indian Pirates in Madagascar, coming soon!
https://www.facebook.com/sailingeast/
--------

Quest for Blackbeard - Kindle edition now only $9.99 at https://www.amazon.com/Quest-Blackbeard-Story-Edward-Thache-ebook/dp/B06XPMPTVM/ref=tmm_kin_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&sr=

baylusbrooks.com

#blackbeard #pirates #history #maritime

Digital List Price: $19.99
Print List Price: $39.95
Kindle Price: $9.99

Save $29.96 (75%)

Tuesday February 13th, 2018 - 1:39 pm

Thanks for the add.I am already in the group,but due to faceache's current witch hunt,a lot of us are suddenly finding ourselves subject to lengthy bans,which is rather inconvenient,so to save any hassle with trying to win the argument,for now I have just adopted a new profile.Can't keep a good Pyrate down,after all….. ... See MoreSee Less

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Told the truth about something that upset somebody in a closed political group.The list of things we may not criticise grows ever longer.

Monday February 12th, 2018 - 11:45 am

"Second to third quarter" Would that mean 1730 - 1745? Or 1715 onwards? ... See MoreSee Less

Second to third quarter Would that mean 1730 - 1745? Or 1715 onwards?

 

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Second Quarter is 1725-50. Third quarter is 1750-1775. So... 1725-75;

What website is this from?

Sunday February 11th, 2018 - 5:11 pm

I'm putting together a cloth vendor list for period fabrics and would welcome any suggestions that match period sources. Anything from blue checkered cloth to colored linens, block printed cloth and fancier fabrics. We're putting together sewing groups to take on the clothing needs for the Utah Pirate festival, so we need cloth vendors for sailors clothing, dresses, work clothes and children. As always, I'm grateful in advance. My sewing teams are crazy excited to tackle projects.

We're making all sorts of extra things too, like this lady's pocket, featuring block printing and a pocket opening like a market wallet. This example is from England circa 1710.
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Im putting together a cloth vendor list for period fabrics and would welcome any suggestions that match period sources.  Anything from blue checkered cloth to colored linens, block printed cloth and fancier fabrics.  Were putting together sewing groups to take on the clothing needs for the Utah Pirate festival, so we need cloth vendors for sailors clothing, dresses, work clothes and children.  As always, Im grateful in advance.  My sewing teams are crazy excited to tackle projects.

Were making all sorts of extra things too, like this ladys pocket, featuring block printing and a pocket opening like a market wallet.  This example is from England circa 1710.

Tuesday February 6th, 2018 - 5:02 pm

Does anyone have experience with pistols from military herritage? ... See MoreSee Less

 

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Got a couple from him.Arrived in short time.Takes all of 60seconds to drill the touch hole after you drop the lock. Haven't fired the with ball,just blank powder.Both spark fine.

What did you get?

Doglock horse pistol and German horse pistol.Both are huge and heavy,but really cool !

Dave, can you take a picture of the muzzle of the Prussian horse pistol for me?

Monday February 5th, 2018 - 11:10 am

The story of Black Caesar, and other black pirates of the golden age, for Black History Month! ... See MoreSee Less

 

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I hate to be that guy, but hasn’t black Caesar been kinda debunked as lore? There was a black Caesar with Blackbeard

I agree with the comments above re. Black Caesar, but good job on dealing with the myth of pirates as liberators of slaves.

Sunday January 21st, 2018 - 9:11 pm

Looking for some good illustrations of British Officers circa 1700 - 1720 ... See MoreSee Less

 

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Infantry, Naval or Donkey Walloper?

Any. Trying to formulate an impression and make the decision.

John Benbow , service 1678–1702

Edward Hawke , service 1720–1781

George Anson , service 1711–1762

These three were naval officers in the Royal Navy... I hope this is helpful!

Very helpful. Thank you.

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Donald Ridenbaugh shared The Crew of the Scavenger's album to the group: Authentic Pirate Living History 1690-1730.
Donald Ridenbaugh

Saturday January 13th, 2018 - 11:37 am

Photos from this year's Scavenger Crew Careening Encampment. ... See MoreSee Less

Photos from this years Scavenger Crew Careening Encampment.

 

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These are amazing!

You guys worked hard for your impressions! Great work. WOW, NO CAVALIER BOOTS ANS MASCARA!

Sharp looking crew you've got there

I'm already thinking about next year

I admire the authenticity you guys seem to put into the smallest details!

This event is on my bucket list. You guys look great and the event seems so unique. I've heard good things from some of the folks I know who went last year.

you fellows look sharp as paint! Great pics!

HMU next time y’all do this

Noticeable research and attention to detail in your impressions lads, well done.

No ladies this year? Looks great though! Good job!

Unfortunately not, though anyone and everyone is always welcome. Britt couldn't make it because of work, and believe me she was missed.

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Friday November 24th, 2017 - 5:14 pm

I bought myself this shirt last night. As for accuracy, it probably doesn't have much to offer however, I think it'll be more accurate than the monstrocity I owned before. Your thoughts? ... See MoreSee Less

I bought myself this shirt last night. As for accuracy, it probably doesnt have much to offer however, I think itll be more accurate than the monstrocity I owned before. Your thoughts?

 

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May I ask how much it was?

I think if you want accuracy, you wasted your money.

second Josh Wilson. Even in this low quality pic, collar is wrong, having it tie together at the collar is wrong, the cuffs are wrong, and I suspect it's not that long of a shirt either. I also am curious about what kind of linen they used (if it is actual linen), but that can't be told from this picture.

The yoke front isn't right either. Yolk backs appear in about the 1870s, yolk fronts are about 1970s.

Is that what the strange line across the middle is? Was wondering about that, and was concentrating on the things that I could decipher per the quality of this pic.

I'd honestly send it back. For £30 you could get a period correct patterned shirt thats machine sewn

I have to agree. Search on here for evidence patterns and how-to guides so you will know what you are looking for, then hit up Etsy or even a FB trading post.

I'll remove the collar ties when it arrives. Really not a fan of those. Not a fan of the line across the chest eiter but I am planning to have a vest over the top, so it may hide that a little. As fornthe length, I'll still tuck it into breeches anyway to disguise the length (or lack thereof)

I'll echo the above. Your £30 would be much better-spent elsewhere. This one is definitely a shirt, but the only pirates likely to have worn one this style would be an actual pirate today that looted a costume shipment.

Question: Why not just save some money and go ahead and build a proper historically accurate kit? The cosplayers won't mind one bit. You can always "Hollywood" it up with bright sashes and accessories for a conference if it's that important to you. (Hoping to provide a legitimate helpful suggestion...)

I'd send it back, and ask questions First before prdering the next one.

Looks alright! I think a bleach white would definitely be up there for inaccuracies. So discolour it I say!

As shirts were underwear,rather than outer garments,they were usually under something else anyway.

Don't think this shirt resembles actual patterns of the era. I'd hide it as much as possible if you plan to keep it. Period ones from G Gedney Godwin or James Townsend & Son would be closer to the mark for you, I think.

Why buy a shirt that you already know isn't right?

I make period correct shirts and start £40 for a fully machined shirt. Pm if you want more details

Have a look here too. Shirts made to extant C18th patterns www.sj-seamstress.com/MensShirts.htm

Found this interesting picture of a man from around 1730. Note his shirt cuffs, rather frilly. How often do we see this from 1700-1730, though?

There is no doubt that impractical clothing existed in most periods..that was the point, by wearing impractical clothing you showed that you were too rich and important to have to do anything practical yourself. However, for the lower end of the social scale this was really not an option: even if, for example, you got a shirt with huge cuffs as in the above, they would have not lasted more than a few days at most before being ripped off either by accident or in frustration...and for somebody like a sailor, things like this would not just be anoying, they could be actually dangerous.

Can never go wrong with generic mainstream has Townsend work shirts (ducks before getting pelted with rotten fruit)

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Saturday June 24th, 2017 - 10:32 am

Seriously thinking about writing and publishing a living history guide for 'golden age' pirates. ... See MoreSee Less

 

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Seconded. All in favor?

Obviously, I already have some thoughts, but what suggestions does anyone have for what should be included in such a tome?

The common sailor's knife. Many of my friends are now going to roll their eyes as I get on my 'sailor's knife soapbox' again, but if I had a dollar for every pirate that had ten guns and no working knife...

It's slowly dawning on me what an enormous task I've just set for myself. I may have to go and rock in the corner for a bit before I think about it any more.

Well I sure hope you write it.

Page 1: "don't make the uncommon common." Heck, maybe the whole first chapter!

This would indeed be a big task. Over here in the U.S., they did this in the American Civil War community - but specifically to Federal (or Union) soldiers in the Eastern theater. It's a big piece of work that multiple people worked together to write. A living history guide is not to be taken lightly. At least you'll eventually have my publication to help with it since you know clothing is going to make a big part of it. Also, Page 2 of your book would have to read "No, I am not trying to ruin your hobby."

Also, a bit of common knowledge that they should all know. One of my pet peeves is ship types. The commonly referenced charts/guides are from a much later period (generally they're depicting 19th century rigs). Boats weren't classified as such back then, so people should know the common types of vessels from the time. They were generally sailors first after all.

OK... Part A. Getting Started. Part B. Material Culture. Part C. Skills and Knowledge.

C1. Trades and what they do C2. Who a ship works basic

D. Pointy and bang things

E. Do xxx and face eternal scorn...

"Pointy and bang things" needs its own books, and has needed it's own book since the publication of "Boarders Away", a 2-volume set that has always needed a reprint.

I suppose the other really big question would be on how much detail is desirable. A 1,000 page tome covering everything you could possibly want to know, costing $150 and published some time in 2025? A 150 page paperback covering the basics with some extra detail on the important stuff, costing £30 and published 2018? Or a 50 page booklet with only the very basics, costing $10 and published in August? In fact, I'll make that a poll and collect votes I think.

How about all 3. Basics intermediate and advance. Not many start the hobby by jumping into text books. But as time goes by when we cross period for example we are more keen to invest in research

The larger the better IMO. biographies on every known captain in the GAOP..with charts and graphs comparing and contrasting them all. I particularly enjoyed the crew connection charts you used in your thesis.

I'd say the 150-300 page book would be best, though an abridged 50 page primer would be useful. I think most people who'd buy a 1000 pager would be keen on just exploring original documents (hey, don't you have a book about that as well?) and textbook research. But if you feel frisky...

Typical costuming and basic patterns too. I can help with that. 🙂

Maybe a series...instead of chapters, 150 page books covering each major section.

May I be the first to purchase ? Autograph please...

I like the idea of a a volume between your first and second suggestion 300 to 450 pages. All good ideas here on chapter content. A chapter on historically accurate kit and another on food recipes for basic region ( I realize that could be a book in it self!) would be nice.

I say "Yea!"

I'm thinking it would be an exercise in futility. "Popular culture piracy" is a force that can't be overcome - especially as it relates to pirate-oriented events/festivals/etc. For authentic naval experiences, I'm focusing on the Napoleonic/1812 period. Good luck, piratical brethren...!

Please go for it Ed Fox!

I think there's a trend towards authenticity in the overall reenacting community, whatever the time period and location. With pirates, there will always be Jack Sparrow clones, but those are more cosplay than anything else.

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Wednesday September 3rd, 2014 - 11:43 am

Another research challenge - the basic linen/canvas simple working cap.

I looked around for any maritime-specific evidence of this for the 1680-1740 period and couldn't find anything on it. There's evidence for all other sorts of caps during the era, but this one strikes out. I know the sutlers sell them and patterns for making your own - but that doesn't mean it's correct for the earlier period. Where's the evidence for it? It's frustrating.
Anyone else have evidence for it in our GAOP era? I am curious to find out if a claim I heard, that it wasn't GAOP appropriate, is true.
Also, I did try Pyracy Pub already, to no avail.
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dont know about this period, but in the later 18th century its been pretty well proven that the 4 panel workmans cap is a reenactorism and that they were tube style hat. there is a really good thread about this subject on the following page: www.facebook.com/groups/124186784273153/

It says Content Not Found, Clive Emerson

oh sorry the group its on is 18th century renactors if that a help

Could we honestly tell a linen cap from a knit one from period artwork?

That is an actual practical question.

I was actually more after the canvas ones - I can say from personal experience that in terms of paintings, besides the fact that caps are greatly outnumbered by felt hats, that what caps are there are usually some kind of non-canvas color. There are about two single figures out of many hundreds of mariners depicted in the paintings I've seen have white caps that might have been - but the problem is that the figures are so vaguely shaped that it's hard to make a decisive call. That's why on a call for what material the cap is made of, I'm looking for written evidence. And I can't go the route of "a lack of evidence is evidence for it" argument on it. Heck, I'd go for a reference to sailors making their own caps right now (they made other clothes, but no mention of caps of this nature).

Take a look at some of these examples from the Colonial Williamsburg textiles collection. They are very meticulous about dating items. Some of these caps appear to be banyan caps rather than work caps, but show the 4 panel construction, so while not the specific lead you wish, it shows the period style at least existed. BTW, I was there this past weekend and found this example of a Dutch print of a banyan from 1693. I took a photo of it, but unfortunately my old cell flip phone is not the best : www.history.org/history/museums/clothingexhibit/museum_explore.cfm#index=41&filter=allgenders,all...

I do wonder what the purpose of the cap was? Informal wear around the house of a upper class person? Anyway - evidence is still lacking for those canvas caps. As I found out with my other research on it - caps are victim to more word vagueness. Yea, you called it a cap, but what kind of cap is it? So simple and cheap back then that the people noting down the caps didn't even take the time to write down anything more specific much of the time.

Right. The more ornate examples do appear to be more a type associated with the banyan for informal wear among the social, or as often recorded, intellectual elite. The one example of a plain linen work cap shows a simple 2 piece construction. Although close to Jamestown and Yorktown, Williamsburg was not known to have a strong seafaring element in its makeup....except for the occasional smuggler, privateer or pirate being held for trial.

Try this link for that 18th Century Reenactors discussion; very worthwhile: www.facebook.com/groups/TheEndeavorProject/716956521695159/

Look at the first two examples on this page. siftingthepast.com/tag/work-cap/

No worry, Mr. Fictum; I was going to suggest that if we have no way of identifying them as such, and they don't appear in the ASC or probates, I would suggest that the case AGAINST them is strong, even if personally I would really like to wear mine as a working cap.

Perhaps I spoke too soon.

Re: Peggy Huckel - that's a real useful link you provided. Allowed me some vocabulary as to what I'm trying to express. While there is evidence for a variety of caps, the evidence for the close-fitting workman's cap made of canvas or coarse and basic linen (the kind made by many mainstream sutlers) that sits as a skull cap are not sustainable by period evidence for the English during the 1680-1740 period in the maritime experience. There are other countries that have evidence of caps that are somewhat similar and often fall outside those dates (though some get the extreme ends of that) and are often outside the maritime context - it is apparent that they aren't exactly the same thing as the skull cap style cap that was mentioned previously. It is also apparent that cap design isn't as simple as previously thought and that a lot of diversity exists in designs. Plus, while these land designs exist, that doesn't mean maritime use. But as for the previously mentioned skull cap style for GAOP era (or close to that time) use, not enough evidence to firmly say "yea, I'm sure they used it." I suspect the vagueness of period evidence will forever plague us to not being able to prove that particular type existing.

On the other hand, investigating this type of workman's cap, that is not cut like a skull cap previously mentioned, as posted in Peggy Huckel's post (which they nicknamed "the tube cap") warrants some more investigation.

David- why limited to those dates and why limited to English?

David that's the thread that I ws talking about. Read the comments it should give you all the background that you need

Re: Roderic Hawkyns - my master's thesis.

Re: Clive Emerson, you mean the one that had the link that didn't work?

It's a closed group. You have to be a member to see the posts...

yep that's the one

Someone in the group compiled and reposted to his open page.

Again, my library is in boxes in storage, but I will weigh in on this. I see two things going on: the desire to document yes/no. And the vendors who sell them. Most vendors primary drive is to sell. If a vendor attends events from multiple periods, and understands their market to be mostly people who also do multiple periods, leaving those caps behind for a GAoP event could mean they miss a sale when someone who does multi-period reenacting wants to buy one for a later impression. Researching before buying clothing items is important. Regarding documentation for these, the fancy ones made for wearing with a banyan is to keep your head warm in cool, drafty rooms when you take your wig off. Working caps help keep the hair clean. Someone, somewhere, had to have found a cap that was made like the 4 piece pattern you see so much. The Snowshill collection, Kyoto musuem, LA county Museum, the costume museum in Bath, as well as CW, are worth looking into for extant examples. Like most clothing, it's the pretty stuff that remains, the working gear gets used up, turned into rags, sold to the paper makers. Sketches rather than paintings may be a better source. Diderot is a bit out of period for most people, but there are illustrations in his Encyclopedia who are wearing caps, iirc. Those illustrations may be the source for most vendor caps/ BUT these are land based trades for the most part. The different shaped caps that look pointier or tube like appear to be more Continental than English.

Snowshill collection only has night caps(seen the collection in person), so don't fit with sailors etc. There is a long discussion on this in the 18th century reenactor group. In which Several people who have researched the working cap especially in the latter part of the 18th century commented, it looks like the four panel cap is a reenactorism and didn't happen in the period. It's probably come from someone using the nightcap shape and then saying that it was used right across society, when so far there has not been any actual primary source found. What has been found in pictures and in the real is the cap like the images that dave has attached, which is basically a tube which is tied at 1 end. Just shows that you should do your research and not just take what you are told.

Also didderot was checked and it again only shows the tube style workman's hat

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Address Unnamed Road, Pirates Well Settlement, The Bahamas
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